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The effect shown in the gif is called gravitational lensing.

What is gravitational lensing?

Gravitational lensing is the effect seen when an object behind a massive object is in the line of sight with the earth. For example:

Earth ————>Massive Object—————->Far away object

When we try looking at the far away object, the massive object bends space-time around it, causing the light rays from the far away object to travel in a curved path around into our line of sight.

As a result of this, we can often see the far away object magnified which helps astronomers understand the early universe. The gif shows a far away galaxy being gravitationally lensed by a closer black hole.

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